Thursday, September 12, 2019
Compare and contrast two Management Theories Term Paper
Compare and contrast two Management Theories - Term Paper Example Theory X This theory is based on traditional conception of control and direction. The theory makes assumptions that average human beings do not like working. Because of this dislike, most people must be punished in order to put forth adequate effort towards the realization of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s goals. Furthermore, theory X assumes that average people prefer to be directed, wish to avoid responsibility, have relatively little ambitions and want securities (Sapru, 2006). Traditionally, this theory was referred to as the carrot and the stick theory and was practically based on mechanistic approach to human relations. Rewards and punishments may be used to induce desired behavior, and this came from the donkey story whereby the best way to make a donkey move was to "put a carrot in front of the donkey or jab him with a stick from behind" (Sapru, 2006). Rewards and punishments are still strong motivators in many organizations. The use of theory X works well under certain circumstances; however, this does not work at all once an employee has attained the highest level and is motivated by higher needs. In other words, this theory does not explain human nature. McGregor states that as long as theory X continues to influence managerial strategy, human potentialities cannot be discovered. Theory Y The inadequacies in theory X led to development of theory Y as integration to replace traditional concepts of direction and control. The human motivations in theory Y may be characterized by the expenditure of physical and mental effort in work. Here, an ordinary person does not dislike work (Miner, 2007).